A. define the idea
The idea of making a documentary film should not go all the way and confusing because this idea could arise anywhere as all around us , in the street , and sometimes we take for granted the idea that this is to be an interesting idea and good produced . So start to think that we are sensitive to the events that occurred . We can also find ideas by reading or watching a documentary there , watching the documentary that is enough to be used as reference .
Make sure that we have an original idea . Browse the list - list international film festival ( especially Hot Docs , Silver Docs , Full Frame Documentary Film Festival and others ) , Internet Movie Database , Indiewire and containers other films , to ensure that there are no films with similar topics ever made .
Once the ideas are found , the next step is to organize the idea. one way in finding the right idea in organizing the filming of a documentary by the method we are using mind mapping or mind maps .
B. Making Treatment or Outline
Outline script called in technical language . Script is the cover story of the movie that we made . Script also an overall employment picture us in producing the film , so our work will be more focused . Treatment is based on the results of our initial research ( either directly or indirectly ) and is based on the formulation of our ideas in the form of films described in descriptive statement ( not thematic ) about how a series of events later in the story or working on. Treatment in the preparation of the most important is the strength of the independence of mind to imagine. Imagine in your mind a visual concept of what is to be offered to the audience , imagine ourselves to be a subject ( actor ) and imagine the subject as well as observers .
C. Creating List and Shooting Shooting Schdule
In the fourth step , there are two that we must note that shooting list and shooting schedule . Shooting list the records that contain any estimates required for FLIM images that we make . Make Shooting This list will also allow us to take pictures . While shooting schedule is noted or planned shooting schedule in advance what we'll do in filmmaking .
D. editing Script
The fifth step is very important in filmmaking . Ordinary people call it the post- production and some that say this film at the editor's desk . In editing we had to prepare three things are making the interview transcripts , making logging images , and makes editing scripts . In making the interview transcription we have to write in detail and detail our interview data with the subject clearly .
E. Logging Image
Logging these images mean , make a list of images from the shooting with tape detail , noting his team code on the tape and how the picture was there . The latter is a task that requires patience because the filmmaker makes editing the script we have preview of recordings we had on television in order to see results before we take pictures clearly . That way we will be producing an outline or a combination of fiction into a reality that can be a clue to the editor .
Documentary is a record of events taken from real events or really happened . Definition of " documentary " itself is always changing in line with the development of documentary films from time to time . Since the era of silent films , documentaries evolved from simple to increasingly complex with the type and function of an increasingly varied . Since the initial discovery of cinema , filmmakers in America and France have tried to document what is around them . Documentary films grown increasingly complex in the era of the 30s . The advent of sound technology also has established the documentary forms with narrative technique and musical accompaniment illustration . Governments , institutions , and large corporations began to support the production of documentary films for diverse interests . Second World War changed the status of documentary films to a higher level . The U.S. government even asked the help of the Hollywood film industry to produce films ( propaganda ) that supported the war . Documentary films are becoming increasingly popular in the community . Before television appeared , the public can watch the events and the events on the battlefield through a documentary and short news footage that played regularly in theaters . While In the aftermath of the post Second World War , the development of documentary experience significant changes . Increasingly rare documentary screened in theaters and the studios began to stop production . The growing popularity of television make new market for documentary films . Cinematographer - filmmaker just starting to emerge and supported by state of the world is now safer and more peaceful facilitate their films are known internationally . One tendency is visible is more documentary films and personal with increasingly sophisticated camera technology that helps them perform a variety of technical innovations . Theme documentary has expanded and more specific , such as social observation , expeditions and exploration , important events coverage , ethnography , art and culture , and so forth . In the late 50's to mid 60's the development of documentary film underwent major changes . In production , filmmakers began to use lighter camera , a little amount of crew , as well as the rejection of the draft manuscript and traditional structure . They are more spontaneous in recording images ( without set ) , minimal use of narrative to let the object speak for themselves ( interview) . This approach is known by many terms , such as " candid " cinema , " uncontrolled " cinema , to the cinéma vérité ( in France ) , but is generally known as Direct Cinema . Several factors affect the emergence of this trend , the Italian Neorealism movement serving everyday realistic , technological innovations 16mm camera that is smaller and lighter , portable voice recorder innovation , as well as television performers whose popularity is increasing. Approach Direct Cinema filmmakers widely used especially American , Canadian , and French .
history of film Development of the film has a fairly long drive up to the end of it like a movie in the present day rich with effects , and very easy to get as a medium of entertainment . Development of the film begins when used tool kinetoscope finding Thomas Edison who at that time used by individual viewers . Early films still silent and colorless . Screening of the film in theaters for the first time performed in the early 20th century , up to the Hollywood film industry first , even to this day dominate the global film industry popular . In 1927 the technology is capable enough to produce films that dialogue can be heard talking in person , but still black and white . Until the 1937 film technology is able to produce a more attractive color film and followed with a storyline that is gaining in popularity . In the 1970s , the movie can be recorded in mass quantities using a videotape that was later sold . The 1980s found the laser disc technology , and VCD and DVD technology followed later . current digital movie more popular, so more and more practical to make the popularity of the film increases and the film becomes increasingly close to the daily life of modern society . Film history can not be separated from the history of photography . And historical photographs can not be separated from its supporting equipment , such as cameras . The world's first camera was invented by a Muslim scientist , Ibn Haitham . The physicists first discovered the Camera Obscura on the basis of the study of optics using sunlight energy assistance . Develop the idea of a simple camera , the cameras began to be found more practical , even so rapidly evolving innovation so that the camera can be used to start motion image recording . The basic idea of a movie itself , thought about by accident . In 1878 when some of the American men gather and light conversation raises a question : " Is the fourth leg of the horse in a position hovering at a time when the horse ran ? " The question was answered when Eadweard Muybridge made picture frames 16 horses are running . From picture frame 16 horses are running , and made a series of motions in sequence so that the horse was running impressed . evident that there was a moment where the horse's feet do not touch the ground when the horse raced central concept is similar to the concept cartoons. horses into motion picture the first motion picture in the world . Where at that time not yet invented a camera that can record the dynamic movement . Upon discovery motion picture Muybridge first time , cameras innovation began when Thomas Edison developed the normal functions of the camera images into a camera that can record motion pictures in 1988 , so that the camera can start recording moving objects dynamically . cinematography thus began a new era marked by the creation of a kind of short documentary films by the Lumière brothers . films is recognized as the world's first cinema was screened at the Boulevard des Capucines , Paris , France with the title of Workers Leaving the Lumière 's Factory on December 28, 1895 which was then designated as the birth of cinematography . films inaudible that only lasted a few seconds it illustrates how factory workers left their workplaces when time to go home. at the inception of the film , it seems there is no purpose and storyline clear . yet when the idea began filming realm untouched by industry , have a clear plot and story . Though the new era of the film world , the picture is not black and white color alias , and has not been supported by audio effects . when it was , when the people the middle of the screening of a film , there will be a music player that accompanies direct the motion picture displayed on the screen as the sound effects .
Is a documentary film documenting reality . The term " documentary " was first used in film reviews Moana ( 1926) by Robert Flaherty , written by The Moviegoer , pseudonym John Grierson , in the New York Sun on 8 February 1926.
In development , there is a new term that is docu-drama . Docu-drama is a genre of documentary where in some parts of the film was directed or arranged in advance with the detailed planning . Docu-drama emerged as a solution to the fundamental problems of the documentary , which is to film the events that have or have never happened .
Documentaries are often regarded as the actual recording tape and pieces of the actual incident took place when , when people are involved in it talk , real life as it is, spontaneously and without media intermediaries . Although sometimes become material in the manufacture of a documentary , this factor is rarely a part of the overall documentary itself, because the materials must be disposed of , recycled , and organized structure. Sometimes even in the earlier shooting , many choices must be made by the documentary makers to determine the viewpoint , shot size (type of shot ) , lighting and others in order to achieve the end result first sempurna.John Grierson coined the term documentary in a discussion of the film by Robert Flaherty ,
Moana ( 1925 ) , which refers to the ability of a medium to produce a visual document of a particular event .
Grierson strongly believes that " cinema is not an art or entertainment , but rather a form of publication and may be published in 100 different ways for 100 different audience . " Therefore, as the documentary also includes a method of cinematic publicity , that the term referred
"Creative treatment of actuality " .
Because there is a creative treatment , the same as in other fiction films , documentaries built and can be seen not as a record of reality , but as another kind of representation of reality itself . Most documentaries on television audiences are so familiar with the code and the dominant form so that they are no longer questioned further about the content of the documentary. For example, viewers often watch documentary hosted by voiceover , interviews from experts , witnesses and members of the public opinion , set a visible location , the pieces of direct events and materials from the archives found .
Lately a lot of pop people who are trying to define their own way ( arbitrary ) as collected try the following :
1 . Paul Rotha :
Documentary definition not refer to the subject or a style , but the documentary is an approximation . Approach to the documentary in the film is different from the feature film . Not because it does not only concern aspects of craft / kerajianan ( craftsmanship ) in the making , but it shows how deliberately the craft used .
2 . Paul Wells :
Non - fiction text that uses actual footage - footage , which includes the direct recording of the event will be presented and research materials related to the event , such as interviews , statistics , etc. . Such texts are usually presented from a particular perspective and focus on a certain social issues which it is possible to be able to attract the attention of the audience .
4 . Steve Blandford , Barry Keith Grant , and Jim Hillier :
Filming of the subject is a community event or a situation that is really happening in the world of reality and the outside world cinema .
( The Film Studies Dictionary , page 73 ) .
5 . Frank Beaver :
A non - fiction films . Documentary films are usually in -shoot in a real location , do not use the actor and the theme is focused on subjects such as history , science , social or environmental . The basic purpose is to enlighten , member information , education , persuasion , and provides insight into the world in which we live .
( Dictionary of Film Terms , page 119 )
6 . Louis Giannetti :
Unlike most fiction films , documentaries dealing with the facts , like people, places and events and not made . The documentary makers believe they ' create ' ; inside the movie world as it is .
( Understanding Movies , The 7th Edition , page 339 )
7 . Timothy Corrigan :
A non - fiction films about people and events , often ignoring traditional narrative structure .
( A Short Guide to Writing About Film , 4th Edition , page 206 ) .
8 . Michael Rabinger :
Documentary should be made with the heart and not just with our thoughts alone . Documentary there to change the way we feel.
9 . Ralph S. Singleton and James A. Conrad :
Film of an actual event . Events were documented by using ordinary people instead of actors .
( Filmmaker 's Dictionary , 2nd Edition , page 94 )
10 . Edmund F. Penney :
A type of film that does the interpretation of the subject and the background are real . Sometimes the term is used widely to show the realistic aspect compared to the conventional narrative films . But this term has also become narrow because often only presents a series of images with narration and soundtrack of real life .
( Facts on File Film and Broadcast Terms , page 73 ) .
11 . James Monaco :
Terms with a very broad meaning , basically used to refer to films or television programs that are not currently present entirely fictitious nature .
( The Dictionary of New Media , page 94 )
12 . Ira Konigsberg :
A film that is directly related to the facts and non - fiction that seeks to convey the reality and not an engineered reality . Films like this care about the behavior of people , a place or an activity .
( The Complete Film Dictionary , 2nd Edition , page 103 ) .
13 . Gerald Mast and Bruce F. mate
A non - fiction films that set the factual elements and present , with a particular purpose .
( A Short History of the Movies , 7th Edition , page 64 ) .
14 . David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson
Rather interesting is what was said by David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson in Film Art : An Introduction , 5th Edition . He said that the core of the documentary is to present factual information about the world outside of the film itself . The difference is in the making with fiction no good engineering of the characters ( human ) , space ( where ) , time and events .
15 . Misbach Yusabiran
Misbach Yusabiran through Writer, Armantono once said that the documentary is a creative documentation processed and aims to influence ( to persuade ) audience . With this definition , documentaries often be very close to the nuanced films propaganda .